Adult (or Tissue Specific) Stem Cells: Materialize during fetal development and stay in the body throughout life. These stem cells are found in many organs including the brain, heart, liver, bone marrow and skin but have limited self-renewal capacity. They have been successfully used for therapy in the organs from which they were originally derived. Bone marrow transplants are an example of the life-saving capabilities of adult stem cells.
Cord-Blood Stem Cells: These stem cells are derived from umbilical cords. Cord-blood stem cells are also multipotent. Although they are limited in their offerings, cord-blood stem-cell transplants have become a viable alternative to bone-marrow transplants for treating blood disorders like leukemia, when a bone-marrow match is unavailable.
Amniotic Stem Cells: Amniotic stem cells were first isolated from amniotic fluid in 2007. In 2010, researchers converted amniotic fluid cells into pluripotent stem cells, which are similar to ES cells. Derived from the amniotic sac. The major difference between embryonic stem cells and amniotic is that unlike embryonic stem cells, amniotic cells are not pluripotent. They are “multipotent”; they can only differentiate into certain cell types. Creating stem cells from a patient’s own tissue eradicates problems with immune rejection and avoids the controversial use of embryos. But their inability to morph into as many tissue types as real embryonic cells remains a limitation.
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS Cells): Engineered by scientists in a laboratory from specialized cells (like from the skin) that have shared qualities to those of embryonic stem cells.
Embryonic Stem Cells: Please Note, our clinic’s don’t utilize embryonic stem cells, but have listed them here for educational purposes only. Embryonic Stem Cells originate in the earliest stages of development. Embryonic stem cells are distinct from other stem cells because they are pluripotent–they can work in all three primary germ layers and can generate all of the 220+ cells found in the adult human body. Because of this, the potential of embryonic stem cells may well be limitless.